Introducing the County of Ilam

introduce ilam province

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According to archeological excavations done all over the province especially in:

- Alikosh, Sabz, Khaziné, Choghā Sefid hills in Dehlorān County, Kezābād and Cheshme-Māhi in Holeylān district which back to prehistoric era

- War-kabud, Kalnesār, Jub-Gowhar, Bardbāl Cemeteries that belong to historic era, and

- Ruins of Seymaré historic city which return to the early lslamic era. It has been understood that human inhabitation in the historic-cultural area of the province, has last sequentially in the different eras.

ilam province is one of the Elamite Ancient civilization's beneficiaries. The brilliant civilization that established in 3rd millennium BC and ruled until 645 BC. Some Ones believe that "Elam" or what Akkadians said "Elamtu", meaning “the high; or mountainous land" or “the land of Sunrise".

After Elamites, Assyrians, Medians, Achaemenids, Seleucids and Parthians ruled on the region. Information and evidences in these eras are not very clear. But in Sassanid era (224-651 BC), due to being nearby the empire's capital Ctesiphon and neighboring Mesopotamia and Khuzestan, the region gained more importance and information are clearer and remains and monuments are further rather than the past eras.

In the Sassanid era, today ilam province was consisted of two provinces: Māspatān (Māsbazān in early lslamic era) in the north with sirvān historic city as its provincial capital and Mehrgān Kadak (Mehrajanqazaq in early lslamic era) in the South with seymaré historic city as its provincial capital. in early lslamic era, these two provinces was part of the greater province called Jebāl (the mountains). The name that Arabs put on the central and western mountainous part of Iran. It was in this time that Al-Mahdi Billah, the fourth Abbasid Caliph that was one of the most well-known ones, died in Māsbazān, Raz Village, On March 934 and buried there. His mausoleum Was situated in today ilam's Kudak Park. it destroyed in 1973 and nothing left behind.

Seymaré historic city was alive until 334 AH (circa 945 BC), before destroying probably by an earthquake.

After this time, the province today borders was part of local ruling family territories called Atabakān-e Lur-e Kuchak; (the minor Lur Atābaks) that ruled on today ilam and Lurestan provinces (12th-16th centuries). In 1597 the Atābaks replaced with another family by Shah Abbas the Great : the Vālis (chieftains) Family. The first ruling Center of the Vālis was in Khorramābād Which is provincial capital of Lurestan. Circa 1801 Hasan Khān emigrated to "Dāwālā" (a Village in which future ilam city built). After this time, this region Was ruling center of Vālis. Hoseyn-Qoly Khān ruled on llam province from 1857 to 1900. He was Hasn Khān's grandson and called the city Hoseynābād. He attempt for developing the city, but his son Gholām-Rezā Khān (1900-1928) was more successful. He was the last Vāli and the most important monument he built is the Vāil Citadel.

After rise of Reza Shah and forming a powerful central government, the last Vāli has been forced to abandon his local power. He did that Without any conflict With central government and left Iran to Iraq forever and died there. in 1935 the city name changed into ilam formally by the Government which suggested before by Academy of Persian Language and Literature in 1930. In the new administrative divisions act in 1937 the region became a county of the Fifth Province (Kermanshahan). in 1964 i|am County was preferred as Farmāndari-ye kol (a rank between county and province) and at last in 1974, became an independent province.

ilam Province (Persian: Ostān-e ilām) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran. It is in the West of the country, bordering Iraq. Its provincial Center is the city of Ilam. It neighbors Khuzestan province in the South, Lurestan province in the east, Kermanshah province in the north and Iraq in the west with 425 kilometers of common border. Covering an area of 19,044 square kilometers, the province lies between latitudes 31°58" and 34°15" N, and longitudes 45°24" and 48°10" E.

The population of the province is approximately 558,000 people (2011 Census) Topography.

ilam is divided into two distinct natural zones; the highlands of the northern and eastern parts of the province are occupied by the Zāgros range running in a northwestern-Southeastern direction, Whereas the Southwestern part is covered by warm weather plains.

Climate. The mountainous area of the province has a cold climate, With appropriate precipitation and relatively dense vegetation. The middle area of the province has a temperate climate, and the western area has warm summers and temperate winters. The forest Vegetation of the province is semi-dense in the elevations, mainly of balut (oak species), mountain almond trees, Wild pomegranate bushes, "the Persian turpentine tree" (Persian: bené), Wild fig trees, zabān-gonjeshk (ash tree), Wild cherries, Senjed ("Bohemian olive"), arghavān (Cercis siliquastum), hawthorn trees, Wild pear, Sumac, etc.

Having this forest Vegetation, especially Because of oak trees (balut), ilam province called "The Bride of the Zagros" (Persian: Arus-e Zāgros)

There are numbers of stone mine and reach protected natural areas too. in the province.

Administrative divisions. ilam province has divided into 10 counties (=sub-province, Persian: Shahrestān) as follow:

ilam, Abdānān, Eyvān, Badré, Chardāvol, darreshahr, Sirwān, Dehlorān Malekshāhi and Mehrān.

The province population is the combination of Kurds, Lurs, Laks and Arabs ethnicities. Kurds are in majority.

Anthropology Museum. Anthropological museum of the province located on Pāsdārān St. in the Center of Ilam. The museum building that established in 2003 is in Vāli Citadel that has antiquity of more than 100 years and built in Qājār Dynasty era in 1908. The museum has two part: in the first part there are some human statues showing the family of the Vāli and province people traditional costumes and typology. In this part, traditional professions and way of living including living in the siyāh-Chādor ("black tent", Woven by goat Wool used by local nomads), partridge hunting, kilim Weaving (Persian: gelim; a kind of rug), jājim weaving (a kind of coarse, thin woolen cloth), rug weaving and family of the Vāli have been depicted.

What in the second part have been shown are: way and tools of traditional farming, rituals and believes, traditional wedding ceremony, traditional customs of province different ethnicities.

+ Historical Background

According to archeological excavations done all over the province especially in:

- Alikosh, Sabz, Khaziné, Choghā Sefid hills in Dehlorān County, Kezābād and Cheshme-Māhi in Holeylān district which back to prehistoric era

- War-kabud, Kalnesār, Jub-Gowhar, Bardbāl Cemeteries that belong to historic era, and

- Ruins of Seymaré historic city which return to the early lslamic era. It has been understood that human inhabitation in the historic-cultural area of the province, has last sequentially in the different eras.

ilam province is one of the Elamite Ancient civilization's beneficiaries. The brilliant civilization that established in 3rd millennium BC and ruled until 645 BC. Some Ones believe that "Elam" or what Akkadians said "Elamtu", meaning “the high; or mountainous land" or “the land of Sunrise".

After Elamites, Assyrians, Medians, Achaemenids, Seleucids and Parthians ruled on the region. Information and evidences in these eras are not very clear. But in Sassanid era (224-651 BC), due to being nearby the empire's capital Ctesiphon and neighboring Mesopotamia and Khuzestan, the region gained more importance and information are clearer and remains and monuments are further rather than the past eras.

In the Sassanid era, today ilam province was consisted of two provinces: Māspatān (Māsbazān in early lslamic era) in the north with sirvān historic city as its provincial capital and Mehrgān Kadak (Mehrajanqazaq in early lslamic era) in the South with seymaré historic city as its provincial capital. in early lslamic era, these two provinces was part of the greater province called Jebāl (the mountains). The name that Arabs put on the central and western mountainous part of Iran. It was in this time that Al-Mahdi Billah, the fourth Abbasid Caliph that was one of the most well-known ones, died in Māsbazān, Raz Village, On March 934 and buried there. His mausoleum Was situated in today ilam's Kudak Park. it destroyed in 1973 and nothing left behind.

Seymaré historic city was alive until 334 AH (circa 945 BC), before destroying probably by an earthquake.

After this time, the province today borders was part of local ruling family territories called Atabakān-e Lur-e Kuchak; (the minor Lur Atābaks) that ruled on today ilam and Lurestan provinces (12th-16th centuries). In 1597 the Atābaks replaced with another family by Shah Abbas the Great : the Vālis (chieftains) Family. The first ruling Center of the Vālis was in Khorramābād Which is provincial capital of Lurestan. Circa 1801 Hasan Khān emigrated to "Dāwālā" (a Village in which future ilam city built). After this time, this region Was ruling center of Vālis. Hoseyn-Qoly Khān ruled on llam province from 1857 to 1900. He was Hasn Khān's grandson and called the city Hoseynābād. He attempt for developing the city, but his son Gholām-Rezā Khān (1900-1928) was more successful. He was the last Vāli and the most important monument he built is the Vāil Citadel.

After rise of Reza Shah and forming a powerful central government, the last Vāli has been forced to abandon his local power. He did that Without any conflict With central government and left Iran to Iraq forever and died there. in 1935 the city name changed into ilam formally by the Government which suggested before by Academy of Persian Language and Literature in 1930. In the new administrative divisions act in 1937 the region became a county of the Fifth Province (Kermanshahan). in 1964 i|am County was preferred as Farmāndari-ye kol (a rank between county and province) and at last in 1974, became an independent province.

+ Administrative Divisions

ilam Province (Persian: Ostān-e ilām) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran. It is in the West of the country, bordering Iraq. Its provincial Center is the city of Ilam. It neighbors Khuzestan province in the South, Lurestan province in the east, Kermanshah province in the north and Iraq in the west with 425 kilometers of common border. Covering an area of 19,044 square kilometers, the province lies between latitudes 31°58" and 34°15" N, and longitudes 45°24" and 48°10" E.

The population of the province is approximately 558,000 people (2011 Census) Topography.

ilam is divided into two distinct natural zones; the highlands of the northern and eastern parts of the province are occupied by the Zāgros range running in a northwestern-Southeastern direction, Whereas the Southwestern part is covered by warm weather plains.

Climate. The mountainous area of the province has a cold climate, With appropriate precipitation and relatively dense vegetation. The middle area of the province has a temperate climate, and the western area has warm summers and temperate winters. The forest Vegetation of the province is semi-dense in the elevations, mainly of balut (oak species), mountain almond trees, Wild pomegranate bushes, "the Persian turpentine tree" (Persian: bené), Wild fig trees, zabān-gonjeshk (ash tree), Wild cherries, Senjed ("Bohemian olive"), arghavān (Cercis siliquastum), hawthorn trees, Wild pear, Sumac, etc.

Having this forest Vegetation, especially Because of oak trees (balut), ilam province called "The Bride of the Zagros" (Persian: Arus-e Zāgros)

There are numbers of stone mine and reach protected natural areas too. in the province.

Administrative divisions. ilam province has divided into 10 counties (=sub-province, Persian: Shahrestān) as follow:

ilam, Abdānān, Eyvān, Badré, Chardāvol, darreshahr, Sirwān, Dehlorān Malekshāhi and Mehrān.

+ Ethnology Of Ilam Province

The province population is the combination of Kurds, Lurs, Laks and Arabs ethnicities. Kurds are in majority.

Anthropology Museum. Anthropological museum of the province located on Pāsdārān St. in the Center of Ilam. The museum building that established in 2003 is in Vāli Citadel that has antiquity of more than 100 years and built in Qājār Dynasty era in 1908. The museum has two part: in the first part there are some human statues showing the family of the Vāli and province people traditional costumes and typology. In this part, traditional professions and way of living including living in the siyāh-Chādor ("black tent", Woven by goat Wool used by local nomads), partridge hunting, kilim Weaving (Persian: gelim; a kind of rug), jājim weaving (a kind of coarse, thin woolen cloth), rug weaving and family of the Vāli have been depicted.

What in the second part have been shown are: way and tools of traditional farming, rituals and believes, traditional wedding ceremony, traditional customs of province different ethnicities.